1919 Black Sox.com

ABE ATTELL: Featherweight champion from 1901-1912, Attell later became a bodyguard for Arnold Rothstein. When gamblers Bill Burns and Bill Maharg approached Rothstein one week before the 1919 World Series, Attell told them Rothstein wasn't interested. The next day, Attell sent Burns a telegram telling him the fix was to go forward, but not to mention Rothstein's name. Attell oversaw the fix as he dealt with the players, gamblers and also managed the money. In 1955, the "Little Champ" was elected into the boxing Hall of Fame. (photo courtesy CHS s008961).
ALFRED AUSTRIAN: Harvard graduate of 1891, Austrian would become part owner of a prestigious law firm in Chicago. He was the attorney for Chicago White Sox owner Charles Comiskey and would be responsible for interviewing then obtaining confessions from Ed Cicotte, Joe Jackson and Lefty Williams in front of the Grand Jury on September 28,1920.
"SLEEPY" BILL BURNS: Former major leaguer that pitched for the Chicago Whites Sox in 1909. Burns would be a key figure during the fixing of the 1919 World Series as he was the middle-man between the players and Arnold Rothstein. Burns was also the star witness for the prosecution during the 1921 Black Sox trial. (photo courtesy CHS s055006).
HAL CHASE: "Prince Hal" had a long history of gambling and contract jumping throughtout his career. Chase was indicted on September 28,1920 on conspiacy charges relating to the fixing of the 1919 World Series. Chase was contacted by Bill Burns and reassured Burns that the fix would work. Chase instructed Burns to speak to Rothstein personally about funding the fix. Hal Chase would be "unofficially" banned from baseball after the 1919 season.

CHARLES COMISKEY: Nicknamed the "Old Roman", Comiskey founded the Chicago White Stockings in 1901 and remained owner of the team until his death in 1931. It is widely accepted that Charles Comiskey was a penurious owner that grossly underpaid his players, making them easy targets for gamblers. Charles Comiskey was elected into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1939.

JEAN DUBUC: New York Giants pitcher who presented the telegram to Sleepy Bill Burns informing Burns that the 1919 World Series was going to be fixed. Dubuc testified before the Grand Jury, but fled to Canada before the 1921 trial began. Dubuc was never disciplined over his involvement and in 1935, as scout for the Detriot Tigers signed Hank Greenberg to a major league contract.

NAT EVANS: Associate of Arnold Rothstein's. Upon Rothstein's instructions, Evans used the alias "Rachael Brown" and accompanied "Sport" Sullivan to Chicago to see if the players could be bought off. Evans was indicted on September 28,1920, but due to a lack of evidence was never convicted.

HUGO FRIEND: Judge that presided over the 1921 Black Sox trial. (photo courtesy CHS n073350).
HUGH FULLERTON: Sportswriter who covered the 1919 World Series, Fullerton had predicted that the White Sox would win the Series. He became suspicious of several plays during the Series and one day after the Series ended wrote the following: "the team that was the hardest working...won. The team...which had the individual ability was beaten. They spilled the dope terribly, so much so that an evil-minded person might believe the stories that have been circulating during the World Series."
JOE GEDEON: Second baseman for the St. Louis Browns and close friend of Swede Risberg. Gedeon received a telegram from Risberg tipping him off to the fix and was present during one of the meetings held between the players and gamblers. Gedeon testified in the trial that he had placed $700 on the Reds after learning of the fix. He was expelled from professional baseball for having "guilty knowledge" of the fix.
WILLIAM "KID" GLEASON: Nickname "Kid" as a means to distinguish him from an old-time St. Louis ballplayer of the same name, William "Bill" Gleasen. "Kid" was a former major league ballplayer from 1888-1908, and managed the Chicago White Sox from 1919-1923. Gleason testified on the defendants behalf during the 1921 trial and always considered his 1919 White Sox to be the greatest baseball team ever. (photo courtesy CHS s062590).
HARRY GRABINER: White Sox team secretary that became White Sox owner in 1940. Two days after the 1919 Series ended, Joe Jackson went to see Charles Comiskey. Grabiner told Jackson to go home, that "we know what you want." Jackson showed Grabiner the $5,000 he had received from Lefty Williams, but was told to take the money and that "if anything further was to be done, he or Comiskey would write."
GARRY HERRMANN: Cincinnati Reds owner and Chairman of the National Commission.
JOHN HEYDLER: Twice served as National League President (1909, 1918-1934). The World Series fix was brought to Heydler's attention by Charles Comiskey after Game 1. Heydler dismissed any possibility of a fix telling Comiskey he was just being a sore loser. Heydler and Comiskey then went to American League President Ban Johnson who also rejected the fix theory.

BAN JOHNSON: Became first American League President in 1899 after he renamed the old Wester League the "American League." The fix was brought to Johnson's attention after Game 1, but due a previous conflict with Charles Comiskey, Johnson dismissed the fix as "the yelp of a beaten cur." Johnson also had clashes with Commisioner Landis which brought about Johnson's resignation in 1927. Ban Johnson was elected into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1937.

KENESAW MOUNTAIN LANDIS: Attorney that was appointed Federal Judge for the Northern District of Illinois by President Theodore Roosevelt in March 1905. Became baseball's first Commissioner on November 12, 1920. Responsible for expelling 19 men from organized baseball, including the eight Black Sox players on August 3,1921. Landis was elected into the baseball Hall of Fame in 1944.
RING LARDNER: Longtime Chicago Tribune sportswriter that covered the 1919 World Series. Ring was also a big White Sox fan with Ed Cicotte and Joe Jackson being two of his favorites on the team. Lardner confronted Cicotte after Game 1 and inquired if a fix was occurring. Cicotte denied any possibility of a fix being in the works. Two days later, while enroute back to Chicago for Game 3, Lardner, in a drunken state, sang a parody of "I'm Forever Blowing Bubbles" entitled "I'm forever throwing ball games."
BEN & LOU LEVI: Associates of Abe Attell who were contacted by Attell in hopes of funding the fix. Both Levi brothers were indicted, but due to a lack of evidence all charges against them were dismissed.
BILL MAHARG: Former major league ballplayer and ex-boxer, Maharg was contacted by Bill Burns to assist with throwing the 1919 World Series. Maharg and Burns worked as the middle-men during the fixed Series. It was Maharg's September 1920 newspaper interview that would expose the fix. Six months later, American League President Ban Johnson contacted Maharg and promised that he would not be indicted if he could locate Bill Burns. Maharg traveled to Del Rio, Texas and located Burns. Burns then returned to Chicago to testify in the Black Sox trial. (photo courtesy CHS n073359).
ARNOLD ROTHSTEIN: Because of his financial status, "The Big Bankroll" had been approached to fund the throwing of the 1919 World Series. Rothstein initially declined, but soon changed his mind and supported the idea. Rothstein never admitted involvement nor was it ever proven he funded the fix. After voluntarily appearing before the Grand Jury, Rothstein was exonerated from any wrongdoing.

JOSEPH "SPORT" SULLIVAN: Bookie and gambler Chick Gandil first met in 1912. Gandil contacted Sullivan two weeks before the start of the 1919 World Series and offered to throw the Series for $80,000. Sullivan agreed to the deal, and went to Arnold Rothstein in hopes of funding the fix. Sullivan later testified in front of the Grand Jury and was indicted, but due to a lack of evidence was never convicted.

DAVID ZELCER: Brother-in-law to the Levi brothers, Zelcer was also a longtime friend of Abe Attell. Hearing of the fix, Zelcer went to Attell hoping to make a quick profit. In an effort to disguise his identity, he used the alias "Bennett." However, Zelcer was later caught and indicted. David Zelcer was one of the nine men acquitted on August 2,1921.
CARL ZORK: Identified as a co-conspirator by Joe Gedeon during Grand Jury testimony. Zork was the former boxing manager of Abe Attell who ran a shirt-making business in St. Louis. Attell contacted Zork in an effort to fund the 1919 World Series fix. Zork was later indicted on conspiracy charges. He would be one of the nine men acquitted on August 2,1921.

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